401 W. Greenlawn Ave.
Lansing, MI 48910
What to expect during your PET/CT scan...
- Complete diagnostic and therapeutic interventional tests for youth, adolescents and adult inpatients and outpatients. Tests are performed through doctor's orders or prescription. Services performed in radiology, nuclear medicine, surgery, the emergency department and in all inpatient rooms.
- Services offered 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
- Mammography services offered in the Breast Care Center in the southeast corner of the Greenlawn campus in the Women and Children's Center. Appointments can be scheduled by calling (517) 975-2695.
- Departments of Radiology are located on the first floor of the Chi Heart Tower at Greenlawn campus, 401 W. Greenlawn Avenue. Radiology is located adjacent to the Patient Registration Department.
Nuclear medicine is the use of very small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and, sometimes, treat disease. Nuclear medicine can provide accurate images of specific areas of the body; valuable information about how your body is working; and therapy to fight some diseases.
Nuclear medicine is -
- Safe. It carries about the same risk as a common x-ray. Only small amounts of short-lived radioactive material are used.
- Effective. Nuclear medicine can detect a wide variety of conditions and illnesses, such as arthritis, heart disease, cancer and infection.
Nuclear medicine works by -
- Giving the patient a radioactive material called an isotope. Depending on the test, the material may be given by injection or IV; capsules; liquid; or inhalation.- The isotope travels to certain areas of the body. The isotope gives off energy called gamma rays - a special form of radiation. This energy can only be seen by special cameras and equipment in nuclear medicine.
- The equipment does not give off radiation.
- A Radiologist reviews the pictures and readings and results are sent to your physician. Your physician reviews the results with you.
Ultrasound is the use of sound waves to see inside the body. Ultrasound is used to study specific areas of the body, and to check the health of an unborn baby. Ultrasound can help diagnose many medical conditions, such as kidney disease, gallbladder disease, and blood clots.
Ultrasound is a medical tool considered -
- Simple: It involves little or no discomfort, and little patient preparation.
- Effective: Ultrasound is often used in place of more other exams or surgery.
- Safe: There are no known side effects. Ultrasound does not require radiation, special dyes or anesthesia.
- Quick: Most exams take 20-60 minutes.
Ultrasound works by -
- A transducer: This is a small microphone-like device placed over the area being examined.
- Sound Waves: Sound waves pass harmlessly through the skin from the transducer. Sounds waves bounce off from certain organs or tissues and create "echoes."
- Echoes: Echoes are reflected back through the transducer making the picture.
- TV Monitor: A TV monitor shows images as the transducer converts the echoes to electrical signals. These moving images may be viewed immediately, or stored on a computer for further study.
During an ultrasound exam -
- The technologist will have you change into a hospital gown and position you on the exam table.
- Will apply a gel or liquid to the skin of the area being examined to improve image quality.
- Will pass the transducer several times over the area being examined. Depending on the exam, you may have to stay still, change positions, hold your breath, or do simple breathing exercises.
- After the exam, the technologist washes off the gel or liquid, and you are ready to get dressed.
- The radiologist will review the exam and report the results to your doctor. Your doctor will review the results with you.
Special Ultrasounds -
- Doppler Ultrasound: Doppler ultrasound can show movement inside the body. Examples would be blood flow or heartbeats.
- Transvaginal and transrectal ultrasound: Smaller, specially designed transducers are inserted into the vagina or rectum to provide better images than traditional ultrasound.
Tests & Preparation
An arthrogram can be performed on any joint. The exam injects an x-ray dye into the joint space. An orthopedic surgeon or radiologist performs the exam. If you are a woman of childbearing age and think you might be pregnant, tell you doctor and technologist prior to the exam.
- No restrictions prior to exam.
- Preliminary film taken of the affected joint. Please bring previous x-rays of this joint to the exam. If you do not have access to your previous x-rays, preliminary images can be performed.
- Skin is wiped with a cleaning solution. A numbing medication is injected into the skin. A needle is placed into the joint space. Needle location is checked under x-ray fluoroscope.
- Once needle is correctly placed, the x-ray dye is injected into the joint space, and the needle is removed.
- Often the joint is exercised or moved to help get the dye all around the joint area.
- X-rays are taken of the joint.
- Once the radiologist reviews the films, the exam is complete. It is possible the area may be sore and ache. Over-the-counter analgesics may be taken for pain relief. Call your doctor if you develop excessive pain or swelling after the procedure.
The radiologist sends the report to your doctor, who will discuss the results with you.
This x-ray studies your colon, using barium - a white liquid that allows the colon to be visualized on x-ray film. The radiologist interprets the x-ray and reports the results to your doctor. Your doctor will talk with you about the results.
Usually, a barium enema is an outpatient procedure. A barium enema may take approximately 45-60 minutes. If you know you have any allergy, are taking prescription medications, or are of childbearing age and think you may be pregnant, please inform your doctor and the radiologist prior to the procedure. A bowel cleansing kit with a light diet started the day prior to the exam will be needed. The bowel cleansing kit can be picked up at the Radiology Department. This prep is performed to better visualize the colon.
- A radiologist performs the exam with a fluoroscope.
- The technologist inserts a rectal tube, so the barium can flow into the colon. Air may or may not be administered.
- You may feel cramping and full in your abdomen. Slow, deep breaths will help you relax.
- During the exam, the machine and x-ray table will move and you will be asked to roll in various positions.
- After the fluoroscopic exam, additional radiographs will be taken. After the films are reviewed by the radiologist, you will go to the restroom to expel the barium and air.
- Another film will be taken after you have used the restroom.
- Return to your normal diet at home, and increase your fluid intake over the next few days, as directed by your physician. The barium should normally pass through your colon, although your physician may prescribe a laxative. It is normal for you stool to appear white as the barium is expelled from your system. If you do not have a bowel movement in three days, contact your physician.
- Computed Tomography Scan (CT)
CT uses x-rays to make a picture frequently described as a "slice". CT scans can be performed on the head, neck, pelvis, abdomen, spine and extremities. The radiologist provides a written report to your physician, and your physician will review the results with you.
- Nothing to eat or drink, smoke or chew four hours prior to the exam.
- Arrive at the Radiology Department one hour prior to appointment time to drink the contrast fluid. An injection of dye may be given.
- Nothing to eat or drink, smoke or chew eight hours prior to the exam.
- Arrive at the Radiology Department two hours prior to appointment time to drink the contrast fluid. An injection of dye may be given.
- Follow procedures for Abdominal and Pelvis CT scans.
- Nothing to eat or drink, smoke or chew four hours prior to the exam.
- An injection of dye may be given.
- Nothing to eat or drink, smoke or chew four hours prior to the exam.
- An injection of dye may be given.
- No special instructions for this exam.
- For many CT procedures, you will be asked to not eat or drink for several hours prior to the test. See below for specific preparation for specific CT scans.
- For the CT scan, you will lie on a table that moves into a doughnut-shaped hole. As you lie still, the x-ray tube moves around you inside the doughnut-shaped hole. The procedure usually takes five to 20 minutes. For some procedures, you may be asked to drink a contrast material or receive an x-ray dye injection.
- Once the pictures have been reviewed, the procedure is complete.
- If you are a woman of childbearing age and think you might be pregnant, please tell the technologist prior to the procedure.
A cystogram is an x-ray study of the urinary bladder. The study places a catheter into the bladder, and is used to place an x-ray dye into the bladder. The dye allows the bladder to be viewed under x-ray fluoroscope. The radiologist will interpret the report and send the results to your doctor. Your doctor will discuss the results with you. If you are a woman of childbearing age and think you may be pregnant, please tell your doctor or the technologist prior to the test.
- No special preparation or restrictions for this exam.
- The technologist will take a preliminary x-ray of the abdomen.
- A nurse in the radiology department places a catheter into the bladder.
- The radiologist supervises the flow of x-ray dye into the bladder under the x-ray fluoroscope.
- Once the bladder is full, x-rays are taken. You may be asked to move from side to side so all parts of the bladder may be seen.
- Catheter is removed. You may be asked to urinate on the table in a basin or urinal so the radiologist to see all the structures. If you are unable to urinate in a basin or urinal in the procedure room, you will empty your bladder in the bathroom.
- An x-ray is taken once the bladder is empty and the exam is done. Once the x-rays have been reviewed by the radiologist, you may leave.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
MRI is a diagnostic scanning technique that produces detailed images of organs and structures in the body. The MRI scanner is a large, cylindrical machine that creates a strong magnetic field, and uses radio waves to create the images. An MRI checks for damage or abnormalities in soft tissues, the brain, and the spinal cord. MRI is used to diagnose tumors, view tissue damage and examine blood flow.
With the MRI's magnetic field, pulses of radio waves are sent from the scanner. Signals from your body's hydrogen protons are received by the computer that analyzes and converts them into a image of the area of the body being examined. The image appears on a viewing monitor.
An MRI assists your doctor in making a diagnosis. A radiologist interprets results from your MRI and sends a report to your doctor. Your doctor will discuss the results with you.
If you know you have any allergy, are taking prescription medications, have a history of kidney disease or failure, or are a woman of childbearing age and think you may be pregnant, or are breast-feeding, tell the technologist prior to the procedure.
- All jewelry and metal objects must be removed because of the magnet. MRI scanning cannot be used to individuals with pacemakers, defibrillators, brain aneurysm clips or other implanted devices.
- During the MRI, you lie on a table that slides into a tunnel or tube-shaped machine.
- The technologist positions the table in the tunnel so the area to be examined can be imaged.
- During the scanning process, you will hear a very loud knocking sound as the magnetic field is created and pulses of radio waves are sent from the scanner. Earplugs are given to help block the noise.
- An MRI usually takes 30-60 minutes. Some MRI exams require an injection of contrast material.
A myelogram is an x-ray to evaluate the spinal canal. A spinal tap is used to introduce an x-ray dye into the spinal canal. X-ray pictures are taken with the fluoroscope. This procedure is generally performed by the radiologist. After the pictures are completed, a CT scan of the target spinal areas is performed.
Preparation for a myelogram:
- After midnight, the night prior to your procedure, you cannot have any solid food. You may have a clear liquid breakfast (water, apple juice, tea, chicken broth, jello) on exam day. You cannot have milk, coffee or orange juice. It is important to drink a lot of fluids.
- If you are a female of childbearing age and think you might be pregnant, tell you doctor or technologist prior to the exam.
- You may take all your medications, except you must not take aspirin, ibuprofen or Vitamin E 10 days prior to the procedure. Blood thinners, such as coumadin, should be stopped five days prior to the procedure. Other pain medications may be taken up to four hours prior to the procedure.
- You should wear comfortable clothing for the procedure. Leave money and valuables at home. Bring previous x-rays, MRIs or CT scans with you. Make arrangements for someone to drive you home, because you will not be able to drive after the procedure.
What to expect prior to your myelogram:
- When you arrive at the hospital, go to Admitting to register. Some laboratory testing may need to be completed.
- You will then go to Same Day Surgery (SDS). The radiologist performing the procedure will explain the procedure and any risks or complications. Ask any questions you have about the procedure. You will be asked to sign a consent form for the procedure.
- You will be transported to radiology on a patient gurney.
During your myelogram:
- You will lie on your stomach on the x-ray table. Your skin will be cleaned with an antiseptic solution. A local anesthetic, such as lidocaine, will be used to numb the skin on your back.
- The radiologist will then place a needle into your spinal canal.
- The needle's placement is monitored by a fluoroscope.
- Once the needle is in the proper position, an x-ray dye will be injected into the spinal canal.
- Several pictures will be taken. Once the dye is placed, the needle is removed. You will be taken to CAT Scan within one hour for additional pictures.
- You will then go back to Same Day Surgery where a SDS nurse will monitor your vital signs for 4-6 hours prior to discharge. It will be necessary to remain in a flat position following your procedure. You will need to drink plenty of fluids to flush the dye from your system. Your family may stay with you after the myelogram. You must have someone drive you home and remain with you for the rest of the day.
- The radiologist will review the images and send the results to your doctor. Your doctor will review the results with you.
A small bowel series is an exam of the bowel that connects the stomach to the large bowel or colon. It is sometimes done along with an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series. The radiologist will interpret the exam and send a report to your doctor. Your doctor will discuss the results with you.
Often, a small bowel series is done as an outpatient procedure. The length of exam varies from person to person, and can take from two to 8 hours. If you are a woman of childbearing age and think you might be pregnant, let your doctor or technologist know prior to the exam.
You will be asked to not eat, drink smoke or chew at least eight hours prior to the procedure.
During your small bowel series:
- You will be asked to wear a hospital gown, and a preliminary x-ray will be taken of your abdomen.
- You will be asked to drink two cups of barium. If you are also having an upper gastrointestinal series, you will drink another cup after your UGI films. The barium coats the walls of the small bowel so they can be seen under x-ray.
- X-ray films will be taken at specific times as the barium travels through the small bowel until it reaches the large bowel or colon. That time period differs from person to person. Once the barium reaches the large bowel or colon, you will be placed onto the x-ray table and x-rays will be taken, after these are finished the exam is complete.
- You will be asked to drink plenty of fluids over the next few days to flush the barium out of your system. Some patients also like to take a mild laxative. Any white, chalky substances in your stool are from the barium. It is normal for your stool to appear white.
- Upper Gastrointestinal Series (UGI)
An upper GI series is an x-ray examination of the esophagus and stomach, using barium to coat the stomach wall so it may be examined under x-ray. An upper GI exam helps your doctor make a diagnosis. The radiologist interprets the films and reports the results to your doctor. Your doctor reviews the results with you.
Most often, an upper GI series is an outpatient procedure, although it may be performed during inpatient care. If you know you have an allergy of any kind, are taking prescription medications, or are a woman of childbearing age and think you may be pregnant, tell your doctor prior to the examination.
You will be asked not to eat or drink anything after midnight or in the morning before your x-rays.
During the procedure:
- You will be asked to wear a hospital gown, and a preliminary film of your abdomen may be taken.
- You will be positioned behind a fluoroscope. You will be given a small amount of baking soda crystals and water to create gas in the stomach, followed by a cup of barium. It is important not to belch, as the gas assists the doctor in evaluating your stomach.
- You will be asked to move in different positions and hold your breath, so x-rays can be taken. Some films are taken while you are lying down and some while you are standing.
- After the radiologist has taken x-rays of selected areas, x-rays of your entire upper digestive tract may be taken.
- You will be asked to wait while the radiologist reviews the films to make sure all necessary information has been obtained.
- At home you may resume your regular diet unless your doctor instructs otherwise. It may be beneficial to take a laxative and drink plenty of fluids after the exam. It is normal for your stool to appear white as the barium is expelled from your system.
- Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
A hysterosalpingogram is an exam for the female reproductive system. The main reason for performing this exam is to determine if the tubes from the ovaries to the uterus are open and not blocked. The procedure is performed by a Radiologist or your OB/GYN physician.
-Please bring any x-rays related to your exam with you to your appointment.
- A major concern for this exam is to be sure there is no risk that the patient is pregnant. The exam must be performed between 5 and 12 days after the start of the menstrual cycle.
- You will be asked to change into a hospital gown and you will then be taken into a special x-ray room that has a fluoroscope. The machine allows the Radiologist to watch the procedure on the monitor as it is performed.
- The procedure starts much like a pelvic exam. A speculum is placed in the vagina and then a small tube is then placed into the cervix. An “x-ray dye” can then be introduced into the uterus and fallopian tubes. At this point you may feel some abdominal cramping. Once the “dye” is in place, the radiologist will take x-rays. You may be asked to move from side to side to see all sides of the tubes. Once the pictures are complete, the instruments are removed and you can sit up. An x-ray is taken after several minutes to check the drainage of the dye. Following the exam, some spotting may be noticed, this is normal. If an excessive amount is noticed, you should contact your doctor. You should bring a small pad with you on the day of the exam. If you continue to have menstrual type cramps, you may take any pain reliever you normally take.
- The radiologist will provide your doctor with the report of the exam. Your doctor can then discuss the results with you.